By Frances Anderson
The program will in place likely by January, with a testing protocol being created
A voluntary, nation-wide program to identify and control Johnes in dairy and beef cattle could be in place as early as January 2003, Gord Coukell told Ontario milk producers at their fall policy conference.
Coukell, who is chairman of the Dairy Farmers of Ontario, represents the Dairy Farmers of Canada on the Canadian Animal Health Coalitions working committee for Johnes Disease.
The committee approved final details of the control program proposal
recently in Winnipeg and will present it to the coalition in December.
However, Coukell said they also agreed there should be another national
forum before the program is introduced, so it wont likely be launched
We have accepted the concept that it would be good to have a national,
but voluntary, control program, sanctioned by the Canadian Food Inspection
Agency and delivered by veterinarians, with commodity groups to deliver
awareness and best management practices, Coukell said.
The program will be national because the countrys Johnes status affects livestock exports, and because of the ease of administration. It will be very similar to the volunteer program initiated a year ago in Alberta, Coukell said.
The United States, Australia and the Netherlands all have national voluntary plans and Japan is considering excluding all imports from countries without a national Johnes control plan.
The Canadian proposal has three components: promoting producer awareness of best management practices, herd testing for Johnes, and disease control and reduction. Herd certification is the only way to control the disease. I dont know of any place eradication is being looked at, said Coukell.
The provincial veterinary services are committed to testing. Now
we are working to see how much money the government will provide,
The committee is looking for $165,000 in startup funding for dairy and beef groups to launch the program, as well as $20,000 in annual maintenance costs. The industry proposes to share costs equally with the government
Control requires testing
The tests are not as reliable as we would like, Coukell acknowledged.
However, he said, they are as good as the tests used for brucellosis
and thats why hes able to support the proposed control program.
The American program recommends testing all cows at the end of lactation,
but they have larger herds, said Coukell. He expects that a random sample
of animals three years old and beyond will be sufficient. As the animals
get older, the tests become more reliable.
There will probably be a combination of tests being used. At this point
in time, either blood or fecal samples are approved. Testing 30 cows in
herds of less than 100 animals, 40 cows in herd of 100 to 200, and 50
cows in the herds of more than 200 will give a representative sample.
It may be possible to pool five blood samples in one culture and pool
manure samples from five to 10 cows to reduce costs without compromising
results. Producers costs will likely range from $210 to $350 for
testing 30 to 50 animals.
Dairy Herd Improvement has been investigating the possibility of testing
milk samples for Johnes. Initially there was a significant amount
of unreliability, said DHI chairman Jim Jenkins. So the research
with the University of Guelph is ongoing.
Researchers are also working on tests for skin and hair samples, said
Coukell. We havent pinned down the criteria for the herd
status program yet, said Coukell. Tested herds will be classified
as low, medium and high prevalence herds and herds will be able to move
from level one through four as they test negative for Johnes over time.
Its not clear how prevalent Johnes is in Ontario. A sample
drawn from the Sentinel herds, which is not random, suggests that 2.2
per cent of cows and 37 per cent of the herds in the province will have
Johnes. Probably 49 per cent of herds in Canada have at least one
Johnes positive cow.
The prevalence in the U.S. was initially estimated at 22 per cent herds, then increased to 40 per cent as testing results came in.
The disease is spreading because of the way herds are managed, and the
way cattle are moved between farms, and between countries. Managing cattle
in large groups, increases the incidence of infections and the practice
of feeding surplus milk to calves enables one cow to infect many others.
Johnes disease, or paratuberculosis is a very persistent mycobacterium
that can exist in dairy herds for years without any animals developing
a clinical case. When the bacterium becomes active, the animal suffers
diarrhea and weight loss. The organism can be transmitted in utero, in
colostrum, in milk and in feces. It also travels in feed and water.
The bacteria can survive 246 days in sunlight, so spreading manure
on the ground is not an effective way of killing this bacteria,
Coukell told producers. And we need to make sure we keep manure
on the land, because in water, it will live up to 455 days.
We may have trouble killing it in water, so its better to rely on prevention than deal with it after the fact.
Hygiene is critical
Best management practices are where you can make the biggest difference
on your farm, Coukell explained during a slide presentation. Attention
to hygiene is critical to stop new infection. The goal is to interrupt
Do some testing and isolate the cows that are positive. Then, remove
calves from cows while they are still wet, before they begin nursing.
It wont make the animal welfare people happy, but it may be
the best action, said Coukell. Then, ensure the calf gets four quarts
of high quality colostrum from a negative-test cow. Another alternative
is to feed only pasteurized milk.
Clean feed and water is also critical. In fact, contaminated feed may
be one of the main vehicles for transmission of Johnes. You cant
scrape the yard with a bucket and then go get a load of feed. Separation
of these functions is critical.
So far, Wisconsin is the only state that identifies positive test animals. There, the vet punches a J in the ear and the cow may only be sold for slaughter or with a note that identifies it as a positive carrier.
One of the things thats not well recognized is that animals testing positive for Johnes should be sent to the renderers, said Coukell. The bacterium travels in the blood, and crosses to the meat and milk as well.
Risk to humans
The consequences of human exposure are still unclear. The link to human health is through Crohns disease (which impairs the intestines ability to absorb food), but theres as many reports that say theres no link as say there is, said Coukell. He was inclined to believe that Crohns and Johnes were linked until recently, when a researcher from the United Kingdom presented contrary evidence at seminars in Ottawa and Guelph.
As a consumer, I find this (link) scary, a representative
from the Consumers Association of Canada told delegates to the DFO conference.
As a former cattleman, I know the rendering plant is not the first
place your take your cattle. Is there discussion about making this a reportable
disease? she asked.
Thats a question for the CFIA. Our view is that if youre going to test to identify these animals, then the animal needs to be identified.
Coukell assured the group, the University of Guelph has tested
pasteurized milk and theres no evidence of it. The milk supply is
totally safe, and as far as were aware of, the meat supply is as
well - as long as you dont eat raw meat.
Johnes is prevalent. It appears to be spreading In many peoples
view, prevention possible. Control is possible.
The farm is the critical control point, Coukell said, and it makes economic sense to control Johnes because it is a production-limiting disease.
No discussion about making Johnes reportable
Theres little discussion of making Johnes Disease reportable
to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
The main reason its not reportable is that the link to human health
has not been clearly established, says CFIA veterinarian Jim Clark.
The secondary reason its not reportable is that its so ubiquitous.
Our organization basically represents animal health concerns,
said Clark. And while Johnes is a production limiting disease, its
so widespread that the cost of introducing an eradication program, and
compensating farmers for slaughtering Johnes positive animals would
be unbelievably high, said Clark.
If Health Canada, which represents human health interests, determined
that Johnes represented a human health hazard, then the CFIA would
likely have to develop a program. But that risk has not be clearly demonstrated.
A number of years ago, we had a voluntary Johnes control
program, but the industry chose not become involved, Clark said.
The incidence at farms which did test for Johnes proved to be high
enough, that the farmers dropped out of the program because it would have
cost them too much to slaughter Johnes carriers.
Clark attributes the cattle industrys current initiative to introduce a voluntary Johnes control program to worldwide concerns about the human health link with Crohns.