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HISTORY
JOHNE'S INFORMATION CENTER - University of Wisconsin Ñ School of Veterinary Medicine

HANDOUTS
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There are many excellent
articles published about
Johne's disease in lay
magazines. With permission
of the publishers, several
of the best are provided here.

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GENERAL | EPIDEMIOLOGY |
DIAGNOSIS| LAWS & REGULATIONS
CONTROL |
CERTIFICATION
PREVENTION

To view these documents, you need
Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Upon request, they
can also be provided in accessible formats.


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Authors of other articles relevant to Johne's disease are invited to submit them for addition to this page of the Johne's Information Center website. Please submit the document by e-mail attachment to mcollin5@facstaff.wisc.edu as a pdf file (preferred) or as a document created with a word processor such as MS Word or Word Perfect. Please include written evidence that the agency or person holding copyright on the article, if any, grants permission for duplication of the article on this website. Final decision whether to add the article to the site or not rests with the site authors.
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Johne's Disease Q & A for Goat Owners
National Johne's Education Initiative

PDF Icon 432 KB

This helpful brochure for goat producers is focused on managing Johne’s disease. Feel free to download, print or forward them to your breeder clubs, 4H groups, meat/milk/fleece or fiber production associates.




Johne's Disease Q & A for Sheep Owners
National Johne's Education Initiative

PDF Icon 500 KB

This helpful brochure for sheep producers is focused on managing Johne’s disease. Feel free to download, print or forward them to your breeder clubs, 4H groups, meat/milk/fleece or fiber production associates.




Johne’s disease still a concern: NAHMS Dairy 2007 indicates awareness high, but national epidemic continues.
Jim Carlton, Bovine Veterinarian October 2008.

PDF Icon 418 KB

Four experts comment on NAHMS Dairy 2007 and the growing epidemic. This article also discusses the latest information on Johne’s disease diagnosis, control and costs.




How Johne’s hurts you in the pocketbook
Jason Lombard, DVM, Hoard’s Dairyman, June 2006

PDF Icon 178 KB

A large USDA study involving 7,879 dairy cows from 38 herds in 16 states showed that Johne’s disease causes a 1,000 to 6,000 pound reduction in milk production. The degree of milk loss was related to the level of fecal shedding of M. paratuberculosis bacteria and the level of antibody as indicated by the numerical value of the ELISA test on blood samples. These cows are also culled from the herd sooner and so have a much lower lifetime milk production record.





Johne’s-Crohn’s link gains ground
Sally Schuff, Feedstuffs, September 19, 2005.

PDF Icon 189 KB

This 3 page article discusses new research linking Johne’s disease and Crohn’s disease. It also describes recent advances in diagnostic tests for Johne’s disease. The concluding editorial urges the dairy industry to be more proactive regarding Johne’s disease control.




Where we stand in the Johne's war.
M.T. Collins, Hoard's Dairyman, April 25, 2004.

PDF Icon 93 KB

This article prepared by the editors of Hoard's Dairyman from interview questions presented to Dr. Mike Collins provides an overview and update on diagnostics and other current issues concerning Johne's disease in the U.S. dairy industry.




U.S. Uniform Program Standards for the Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program
by the U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. September 1, 2010

PDF Icon 47 KB

This 40 page document describes the definitions, rules and regulations for the U.S. program to control Johne's disease. This is a cooperative state-federal program administered by states and supported by agriculture industries and federal (U.S.) government. The objective of this program is to provide minimum national standards for control of Johne's disease.




Assessment of surveillance and control of Johne's disease in farm animals in Great Britain
by Veterinary Division of the Scottish Agricultural College, 2002

PDF Icon 562 KB

This 245 page report is a comprehensive review on Johne's disease and options for control of the disease in Great Britain. It is an excellent compilation of information on every aspect of the disease.




The Cattle Industry's Next Big Test
by Brad Parker, Angus Journal, August 2001.

PDF Icon 270 KB

This article directed at beef breeders describes Johne's disease in general and give specific examples of beef breeders who are tackling working hard to insure their herd is not infected and certified.   They are using their certified status to market their cattle.




CAST Issue Paper: Johne's Disease in Cattle
Council on Agriculture, Science and Technology Task Force, May 2001.

PDF Icon 70 KB

The Council on Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) has published an issue paper (number 17, May 2001) titled "Johne's Disease in Cattle". The report summarizes the status of bovine Johne's disease in the USA. This 10 page report prepared by seven member task force and reviewed by a panel of three independent experts is a concise overview of the current situation in the U.S..




Educate yourself about Johne's
by Kimberlee Schoomaker, Dairy Herd Management, April 2001.

PDF Icon 460 KB

Test your knowledge of Johne's disease. See if you can answer these seven frequently asked questions. Answers to the questions from the leading U.S. experts are provided in this article.




Will you take on Johne's disease
Geri Wren, Bovine Veterinarian, February 1998.

PDF Icon 512 KB

This article is the first of a three part series. It provides a good overview of Johne's disease in dairy cattle and things herd owners must know when considering how to approach a control program




Johne's in beef cattle
Geni Wren, Bovine Veterinarian, February 2000.

PDF Icon 281 KB

Results of the USDA survey of U.S. cow-calf operations for Johne's disease are described with interpretation and comments by one of the study organizers, Dr. Dave Dargatz. Beef '97, the name of the survey, found that 7.9% of U.S. cow-calf herds (called beef suckler herds in some countries) have at least one cow with Johne's disease. An excellent inset article describes how to control Johne's disease in beef herds. Information for this inset was provided by Drs. Christine Rossiter and Don Hansen of the National Johne's Working Group.




We need to eliminate Johne's
Editorial by Thomas J. Quaife, Dairy Herd Management, August 2000.

PDF Icon 44 KB

Triggered by a meeting of the Western States Dairy Producers Trade Association, Quaife outlines reasons for becoming more proactive about Johne's disease control in the USA.



 



Is there a link between Johne’s disease and Crohn’s disease in humans
Bovine Veterinarian, October 2008

PDF Icon 238 KB

This short side-bar in Bovine Veterinarian (see related article under the General heading) gives one expert’s view on the American Academy of Microbiology report titled Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis: Incidental human pathogen or public health threat? and released August 2008. A link to the full report is provided in the article and on the News page of this website.




A review of evidence for a link between exposure to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease in humans. A report for the U.K. Foods Standards Agency.
Dr. Eileen Rubery, University of Cambridge, June, 2001

PDF Icon 1 MB

This 55 page document is a report by a scientist independently contracted to evaluate the M. paratuberculosis - Crohn's disease link. The report is current, comprehensive, concise and lists 242 references. For those interested in this subject it is must reading.




Irradiation destroys Johne's in milk
Kimberlee Schoonmaker, Dairy Herd Management, September 2001.

PDF Icon 56 KB

Preliminary findings of a joint research between Colorado State University and the National Animal Disease Center indicate that the bacterium that causes Johne's, M. paratuberculosis, can be killed with 5 kGy of irradiation.  Pinpointing the lowest possible dose of irradiation needed for 100% kill and the impact on milk quality remain to be determined.




Possible links between Crohn's disease and paratuberculosis
The European Commission Directorate

PDF Icon 597 KB

This link provides access to The European Commission Directorate-General Health & Consumer Protection, Report of the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare adopted 21 March 2000. This 76 page report is the product of a nine member panel of European experts. It provides an excellent review of the literature listing 372 references in its bibliography. Prepare for a slow download as the report is a very large pdf file.




Johne's Disease found in Kangaroos
Primary Industries and Resource SA

PDF Icon 12 KB

-Interim laboratory results from veterinary research on Kangaroo Island, S. Australia have shown that two kangaroos and two wallabies have tested positive for the presence of Ovine Johne's disease (OJD) bacteria.




Aim for Johne's eradication
Kimberlee Bungert, Dairy Herd Management, December 1997.

PDF Icon 3.5 MB

Results of the NAHMS Dairy '96 survey are described showing the percentage of U.S. dairy herds that are infected, the cost of Johne's disease to producers, and the familiarity of U.S. producers with Johne's disease (in 1997).




Are Johne's and Crohn's connected?
Paula Mohr, Dairy Today, May 2001

PDF Icon 770 KB

Science has yet to prove what causes Crohn's disease in humans.  Some believe M. paratuberculosis-infected animals are to blame.  This article concisely reviews both sides of this controversial issue.  Excellent side bars provide more information.  One is titled: "Does pasteurization kill MAP [M. paratuberculosis]?.  Another is titled: "What producers can do in the fight against Johne's".  And a third is titled "The fight against Crohn's disease".



 



Johne’s: Progress in Small Steps.
By JoDee Sattler, Midwest Dairy Business, March 2007

PDF Icon 1177 KB

Johne’s disease continues to hamper dairy profitability and testing and prevention remain the best weapons. This excellent article reviews the latest information in diagnostic tests including the newest test to become available, the milk ELISA. Prevention and control of Johne’s disease are also nicely summarized.




Johne’s Disease: What’s the best test?
Michael T. Collins, DVM, PhD, Western Dairy News, February 1, 2007

PDF Icon 457 KB

This article summarizes consensus recommendations of five U.S. experts on which diagnostic test to for each of six different situations. The article is a lay synopsis of the more comprehensive Special Report published in the December 15, 2006 issue of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.




What is the value of Johne's testing?
by Scott Wells, DVM, PhD, Hoard's Dairyman, April 10, 2003.

PDF Icon 59 KB

Your choice of test and testing strategy depend on your goals: eradication or control of Johne's disease. This article by a noted expert from the University of Minnesota describes the basics of Johne's disease and things to consider when choosing a testing program.




Means to an End
by Brad Parker, Angus Journal, September 2001.

PDF Icon 245 KB

This article describes diagnostic tests for Johne's disease.  It gives the advantages and disadvantages of different types of tests available today and a scheme for making decisions when using the ELISA.  The article also gives a glimpse of what new tests are under development in research laboratories.




Diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle
Mike Collins, Hoard's Dairyman, March 25, April 10 & 25, 2001.

PDF Icon 432 KB

This is a compilation of three articles in Hoard's Dairyman describing laboratory tests for Johne's disease and how they can be interpreted and used to control the disease in dairy herds.




Consider on-farm Johne's testing
Kimberlee Schoomaker, Dairy Herd Management, February 2000.

PDF Icon 276 KB

On new on-farm blood test for Johne's disease is described in this article.




Testing for Johne's disease
Geni Wren, Bovine Veterinarian, July-August 1998.

PDF Icon 484 KB

This article is the third of a three part series. It provides a comprehensive information on the accuracy of available tests for Johne's disease in cattle, how tests are interpreted, and how tests can be used in a control program.



 



Uniform Program Standards for the Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, September 1, 2010

PDF Icon 46 KB

This 40 page document provides current standard definitions and rules for all aspects of the Johne’s disease control program in the U.S.A. effective September 1, 2010.




Johne's program - where they're at
Geni Wren, Bovine Veterinarian, January 2001

PDF Icon 828 KB

This article describes the situation in different U.S. states regarding Johne's herd status (certification) and control programs. Actions the USDA is planning to take are outlined and the policy position on Johne's disease of the National Cattlemen's Beef Association is provided.




Wisconsin Johne's disease regulations
Wisconsin Herd Health Working Group, July 2000

PDF Icon 180 KB

New regulations regarding Johne's disease became effective July 1, 2000. The intent of the regulations is to halt the spread of Johne's disease among dairy herds. This three page brochure describes how the regulations work.




Lack of harmonization threatens Johne's control efforts
Editorial by Thomas J. Quaife, Dairy Herd Management, July 1999.

PDF Icon 20 KB

Tom Quaife argues in this editorial that it is important to create similar Johne's disease herd classification systems among states to make a truly effective national control program in the USA.



 



The Cost of Johne's Disease to Dairy Producers
The National Johne’s Education Initiative

PDF Icon 599 KB

The National Johne’s Education Initiative, with financial support from IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., has developed a simple tool for estimating the cost of Johne’s disease for commercial dairies. This brochure describes how to make the cost calculations for your own herd.




Some Johne’s Cows do More Harm Than Others
Terry Fyock, Robert Whitlock, and Raymond Sweeney, Hoard’s Dairyman, October 2009

PDF Icon 360 KB





Raising calves - The 5 Cs of a healthy start
Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board and the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, July 2009

PDF Icon 180 KB

Good calf rearing practices are essential for Johne's disease control. This brochure explains five critical aspects of raising calves: the 5 Cs - Colostrum, Calories, Cleanliness, Comfort, and Consistency.




They tackled Johne’s head-on
By Sarah Jackson, Hoard’s Dairyman, April 25, 2008.

PDF Icon 178 KB

This farm decided to take on Johne’s disease and reduce its grip on their herd . . . and it worked in a big way. Read this story about a successful Johne’s disease control program carried out with financial support from the Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board, the USDA-APHIS-VS, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison.




Pasteurizers become part of heifer program
By Hal Schulte, Northeast Dairy Business, April 2006.

PDF Icon 104 KB

Pasteurizers are becoming increasingly popular on farms as a means of simultaneously controlling costs and infectious diseases like Johne’s disease. However, pasteurization must be done correctly. This article and the side-bar “Pasteurizer results on dairies” give some valuable lessons in use of pasteurizers on-farm. Take home message: Don’t just assume they are working, test the milk before and after pasteurization.




Working Through Johne’s Disease
Bovine Veterinarian, March-April 2006

PDF Icon 213 KB

Three bovine practitioners are interviewed about their experiences with controlling Johne’s disease. One of the practitioners, Dr. Vic Eggleston, now manages the University of Wisconsin Demonstration Herd Project and he describes the success he is seeing in those herds and why. Side-bar articles explain the work of the National Johne’s Working Group and discuss the pros and cons of vaccination.





How they’re tackling Johne’s.
Hoard’s Dairyman, February 10, 2006

PDF Icon 453 KB

Interviews with owners and managers of four farms across the U.S. Routine testing and day-to-day control measures go hand in hand on these farms. They’re proof you can make progress. Copyright © 2006 by W.D. Hoard & Sons Co.

Visit Hoard’s Dairyman for more information about the dairy business http://www.hoards.com/ .






Risk Assessment tools for dairy and beef herds - 2011 versions.
Instructions and forms created by the U.S. National Johne’s Working Group.

PDF Icon PDF files below


These three documents are the official risk assessment tools used in the U.S. to assist producers identify and rectify management practices that allow transmission of Johne’s disease in cattle herds. These forms can be used unofficially by producers to gauge their herd management as it relates to Johne’s disease prevention and control. These same forms are used by Johne’s Certified Veterinarians to perform official herd risk assessments and generate herd plans. These forms are filed with the appropriate state Designated Johne’s Coordinator (DJC). If approved by the DJC, the herd is considered enrolled in the U.S. national Johne’s program.




How one Wisconsin family controlled Johne's.
Dr. R.W. Fish, Hoard's Dairyman, November 2003

PDF Icon 21 KB

This article by a Wisconsin veterinarian describes a Johne's disease control success story. A combination of improved herd management and vaccination brought the disease under control.




Vaccination can help control Johne’s.
Dr. Donald Rothbauer, Hoard’s Dairyman, December 2003

PDF Icon 26 KB

This article by a Wisconsin veterinarian describes how use of a vaccine for Johne’s disease in combination with herd management helped to bring the disease under control.




New decision-making tool for Johne's
Maureen Hanson, Dairy Herd Management, February 2003

PDF Icon 403 KB

Two articles describe a simple system for testing cows at the tail end of lactation to help make cost-effective culling decisions and calving management changes to help control Johne's disease in dairy herds. Interviews with two producers support the value of the decision making system.

These articles are also available in Spanish.
Nueva herramienta de decisión para la enfermedad de Johnes
Como usar la nueva estrategia de decisión para Johnes





Colostrum replacers for Johne's control
Dr. Marguerita B. Cattell, Dairy Herd Management, December 2002

PDF Icon 24 KB

Dr. Cattell describes how commercial colostrum replacement products can help limit spread of infectious diseases, such as Johne's disease, from cows to calves.




Prevent the spread of Johne's disease in your herd
Laura Moser, Hoard's Dairyman, December 2002

PDF Icon 171 KB

Laura Moser describes ways to control the spread of Johne's disease in dairy herds.  Interviews with experts and producers support the article.




Manual for Herd Plan Development
Designed and edited by C.A. Rossiter, D. Hansen, L.J. Hutchinson, and R.H. Whitlock.

PDF Icon 629 KB

This 14 page manual for dairy herds provides a guide for collecting a herd history, estimating herd prevalence, analyzing risk factors for Johne’s disease transmission, and developing a control and prevention plan.




Calf milk pasteurization.
Maureen Hanson, Bovine Veterinarian, November-December 2001.

PDF Icon 1 MB

Pasteurization of milk fed to calves is one strategy to control spread of Johne's disease, as well as several other infectious diseases, from cows to calves. This excellent 5 page article describes the process of pasteurization and some of the economic and logistic issues important to consider.




Prepare for the Battle
by Brad Parker, Angus Journal, October 2001.

PDF Icon 247 KB

Johne's disease prevention and control are the theme of this, the third article in a series published in the Angus Journal.  Strategies to avoid bringing M. paratuberculosis into a beef herd are outlined.  For herd owners that discover their herd is infected, the article describes management and testing strategies to get on top of this disease.




Johne's disease control strategies
Geni Wren, Bovine Veterinarian, May-June 1998.

PDF Icon 324 KB

This article is the second of a three part series. It provides comprehensive information on ways to control Johne's disease in dairy cattle herds with explanations as to why each strategy is important.




Johne's can be managed
Paula Mohr, Dairy Today, November/December 2000

PDF Icon 67 KB

Four years into an aggressive management, test and vaccination program Stein Farms, a 650 cow New York dairy, report on progress in their five year eradication plan. This is the fourth feature on this farm.




The real cost of Johne's
Kim Bower-Spence, Dairy Today, July 2000.

PDF Icon 40 KB

Most costs flow from premature culling. A Pennsylvania study found that contract heifer raising offers a cost-effective strategy to control Johne's disease.




Immunology of the calf
Geni Wren, Bovine Veterinarian, February 1996.

PDF Icon 600 KB

Understanding how a calf's immune system develops is important to understanding how to raise healthy calves and healthy herd replacements. Raising healthy calves is critical to Johne's disease control. This article is an excellent overview of the basics.




Answers to pasteurization questions
Dr. Marguerita B. Cattell, Dairy Herd Management, November 1999.

PDF Icon 28 KB

Johne's disease spreads from cows to calves most often when waste milk is fed to calves. Pasteurizing waste milk, or even colostrum, on-farm is an option. Dr. Cattell provides practical answers about on-farm pasteurization in this one page article.



 



Uniform Program Standards for the Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, September 1, 2010

PDF Icon 46 KB

This 40 page document provides standard definitions and rules for states wanting to adopt a system for classifying herds based on the likelihood they are NOT infected (generically referred to as a herd certification program).




Test your cows for Johne's disease
JoDee Sattler, Midwest Dairy Business 2000

PDF Icon 5.3 MB

This article describes the basics of Johne's disease control on diary farms and also describes state programs in Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. A useful table of names and phone numbers is provided for people in charge of Johne's disease programs in nine Midwestern U.S. states.



 




Risk Assessment tools for dairy and beef herds.
Instructions and forms created by the U.S. National Johne’s Working Group.

PDF Icon PDF files below


These three documents are the official risk assessment tools used in the U.S. to assist producers identify and rectify management practices that allow transmission of Johne’s disease in cattle herds. These forms can be used unofficially by producers to gauge their herd management as it relates to Johne’s disease prevention and control. These same forms are used by Johne’s Certified Veterinarians to perform official herd risk assessments and generate herd plans. These forms are filed with the appropriate state Designated Johne’s Coordinator (DJC). If approved by the DJC, the herd is considered enrolled in the U.S. national Johne’s program.




Waste milk, milk replacer or pasteurized waste milk
Bill Stone, Northeast Dairy Business, June 2004

PDF Icon 110 KB

This excellent article describes the biosecurity benefits and costs of each method of feeding calves. A table nicely compares the estimated time to recover pasteurizer purchase costs and operating expenses for farms having 50 to 1,000 calves per year. Seven research papers on pasteurizers are listed for those wanting to read more.




Biosecurity on dairies - are we doing enough?
Mike Collins, DVM, PhD, Proceedings of the VitaPlus Dairy Summit 2002

PDF Icon 200 KB

The VitaPlus Dairy Summit 2002 meeting was held in Minnetonka, Minnesota, December 12-13, 2002.  The proceedings handout concerned biosecurity in general and Johne's disease prevention in particular and is provided here.




Proceedings of the Workshop on Diagnosis, Prevention and Control of Johne's disease in Non-domestic Hoofstock


PDF Icon 288 KB

This workshop was held at the White Oak Conservation Center, Yulee, Florida June 26-28, 1998. It was cosponsored by the White Oak Conservation Center, San Diego Zoo, San Diego Wild Animal Park, and the Wildlife Conservation Society.




Practical protocols
Paula Mohr, Dairy Today, July 2000.

PDF Icon 108 KB

Veterinarian Sarah Overby and owners of the Wilerding Dairy, Freeport, Minnesota describe their biosecurity plan to avoid bringing Johne's disease into their herd when expanding it from 120 to 350 cows.




4 ways to minimize disease during expansion
Kimberlee Schoomaker, Dairy Herd Management, November 2000.

PDF Icon 300 KB

Farmers in New York and Wisconsin describe their programs for preventing introduction of infectious diseases, including Johne's disease, during herd expansions.




Got milk?™ No, I've got BVD, Johne's heel warts, mastitis.....
Dr. Greg Quakenbush Jack Wiley, Midwest Dairy Business, November-December 1998

PDF Icon 4.3 MB

This final article of in a series of six describes the importance of biosecurity to dairy herd owners and the economic consequences of failing to plan before bringing cattle into a herd. Johne's disease is just one of several infectious diseases that can be avoid with a good biosecurity plan.











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